Housing & Soc Change Eur/Usa

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Employees in Germany will usually receive a monthly payslip Gehaltsabrechnung, Lohnabrechnung or Verdienstabrechnung from their employer, detailing their salary, social security contributions and taxes. To anyone who is not familiar with them, these breakdowns can be difficult to understand. The personal information section defines various parameters that are used for tax and social security contribution calculations:.

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You will also be given a detailed breakdown of your base salary, benefits, bonuses, taxes and insurance contributions. Detailed information on these various deductions can be found on our Income tax and Social security contributions pages:. You might see some of these terms:.

According to the Federal Statistical Office of Germany, in the average gross annual salary was The tables below give an idea of how these factors can influence your pay. Source: stepstone. The salary you can expect to receive is also affected by where in Germany you live. Typically, the larger cities will offer higher salaries to compensate for a higher cost of living. Jobs in eastern Germany also usually command a lower salary.

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The following table demonstrates how average annual salaries in the different federal states deviate from the average salary in Germany as a whole:. The amount you earn depends on the type of qualification you have. Generally, Germany as a country favours highly-qualified workers, as is demonstrated by the difference in entry-level gross annual salaries for vocational and academic qualifications:. Minimum wage was only introduced in Germany in January It applies to all workers aged over 18 and is reviewed every two years.

Home Career Working in Germany. Gross salary Your gross salary Bruttogehalt is your monthly or annual salary before deductions. Net salary Your net salary Nettogehalt is the amount you will receive each month into your bank account , once all taxes, social security contributions and other costs have been deducted. In particular, at the end of World War II, many political decisions favored suburban development and encouraged suburbanization , by drawing city taxes from the cities to build new infrastructure for towns.

The manufacturing sector has been a base for the prosperity of major cities. When the industries have relocated outside of cities, some have experienced population loss with associated urban decay, and even riots.

Housing & Social Change in Europe and the Usa

Cut backs on police and fire services may result, while lobbying for government funded housing may increase. Increased city taxes encourage residents to move out.

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Rent controls are often enacted due to public pressure and complaints regarding the cost of living. Proponents of rent controls argue that rent controls combat inflation, stabilize the economic characteristics of a city's population, prevent rent gouging, and improve the quality of housing. Historically in the United States , the white middle class gradually left the cities for suburban areas due to African-American migration north toward cities after World War I.

Some historians differentiate between the first Great Migration — , numbering about 1. Between and , Blacks moved from 14 states of the South, especially Alabama , Louisiana , Mississippi and Texas to the other three cultural and census-designated regions of the United States. More townspeople with urban skills moved during the second migration.

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More than 80 percent lived in cities. A majority of 53 percent remained in the South, while 40 percent lived in the North and 7 percent in the West.

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From the s until , African-Americans seeking borrowed capital for housing and businesses were discriminated against via the federal-government—legislated discriminatory lending practices for the Federal Housing Administration FHA via redlining. Later urban centers were drained further through the advent of mass car ownership, the marketing of suburbia as a location to move to, and the building of the Interstate Highway System. In North America this shift manifested itself in strip malls , suburban retail and employment centers, and very low-density housing estates.

Large areas of many northern cities in the United States experienced population decreases and a degradation of urban areas.

Inner-city property values declined and economically disadvantaged populations moved in. In the U. As they moved into traditional white neighborhoods, ethnic frictions served to accelerate flight to the suburbs. The United Kingdom experienced severe urban decay in the s and s exemplified by The Specials ' hit single " Ghost Town ". Major cities like Glasgow , the towns of the South Wales valleys , and some of the major industrial cities like Manchester , Liverpool and Newcastle upon Tyne , along with East London , experienced population decline due to counterurbanization , with large areas of 19th-century housing experiencing market price collapse.

Some seaside resort towns have also experienced urban decay towards the end of the 20th century, due to the popularity of package holidays to the continent.

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Large French cities are often surrounded by areas of urban decay. While city centers tend to be occupied mainly by upper-class residents, cities are often surrounded by public housing developments , with many tenants being of North African origin from former French colonies Morocco , Algeria and Tunisia , and recent immigrants.

Housing & Soc Change Eur/Usa / Edition 1

From the 50s to the 70s, publicly funded housing projects resulted in large areas of mid to high-rise buildings. These modern "grands ensembles" were welcomed at the time, as they replaced shanty towns and raised living standards, but these areas were heavily affected by economic depression in the 80s. The banlieues of large cities like Lyon , especially the northern Parisian banlieues, are severely criticized and forgotten by the country's territorial spatial planning administration. They have been ostracised ever since the French Commune government of , considered as "lawless" or "outside the law", even "outside the Republic", as opposed to "deep France" or "authentic France", which is associated with the countryside.

In November , the French suburbs were the scene of severe riots sparked by the accidental electrocution of two teenagers in the northern suburbs of Paris, and fueled in part by the substandard living conditions in these areas. Many deprived suburbs of French cities were suddenly the scenes of clashes between youngsters and the police, with violence and numerous car burnings resulting in huge media coverage.

Today the situation remains generally unchanged; however, there is a level of disparity. Some areas are experiencing increased drug trafficking, while some northern suburbs of Paris and areas like Vaulx-en-Velin are undergoing refurbishment and re-development. Some previously mono-industrial towns in France are experiencing increasing crime, decay, and decreasing population.

The issue remains a divisive issue in French public politics. In Italy, one of the most well known case of urban decay is represented by the Vele di Scampia , a large public housing estate built between and in the Scampia neighbourhood of Naples. The idea behind the project was to provide a huge urban housing project, where hundreds of families could socialise and create a community.

The design included a public transportation rail station, and a large park area between the two buildings. The planners wanted to create a small city model with large parks, playing fields, and other facilities. However, various events led to tremendous urban decay inside this project and in the surrounding areas. It all started with the earthquake in Irpinia , which led many families, left homeless, to squat the flats inside the Vele.

In South Africa, the most prominent urban decay case is Hillbrow , an inner city neighborhood of Johannesburg. Businesses that operated in the area also moved to suburbs. Many east German towns such as Hoyerswerda face are facing significant population loss and urban shrinkage [ disambiguation needed ] since the reunification of Germany. To fill the housing needs, the East German state quickly built many prefabricated apartment buildings.

In addition, historic preservation of pre-war buildings varied; in some cases, the rubble of buildings destroyed by the war were simply left there while in other cases the debris was removed and an empty lot remained. Other standing historical structures were left to decay in the early GDR as they did not represent the socialist ideals of the country.

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Gentrification has also had a significant effect, and remains the primary means of a natural remedy. In the United States, early government policies included " urban renewal " and building of large-scale housing projects for the poor. Urban renewal demolished entire neighborhoods in many inner cities; in many ways, it was a cause of urban decay rather than a remedy.

For multiple reasons including increased demand for urban amenities, some cities have rebounded from these policy mistakes. Meanwhile, some of the inner suburbs built in the s and 60s are beginning the process of decay, as those who are living in the inner city are pushed out due to gentrification.

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In Western Europe , where undeveloped land is scarce and urban areas are generally recognised as the drivers of the new information and service economies, urban renewal has become an industry in itself, with hundreds of agencies and charities set up to tackle the issue. European cities have the benefit of historical organic development patterns already concurrent to the New Urbanist model, and although derelict, most cities have attractive historical quarters and buildings ripe for redevelopment.

One of the best examples of this is in Hulme , Manchester , which was cleared of 19th-century housing in the s to make way for a large estate of high-rise flats. During the s, it was cleared again to make way for new development built along new urbanist lines. The construction of the Gowanus Parkway , laying a concrete slab on top of lively, bustling Third Avenue, buried the avenue in shadow, and when the parkway was completed, the avenue was cast forever into darkness and gloom, and its bustle and life were forever gone.

Recommended restrictions should include provision for the following. Prohibition of the occupancy of properties except by the race for which they are intended. Schools should be appropriate to the needs of the new community and they should not be attended in large numbers by inharmonious racial groups. Archived from the original on 29 December Retrieved 3 November CS1 maint: Archived copy as title link.

Ninety-five percent of cities with populations greater than , people in the U. Between and alone, some 50, families averaging 3. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Sociological process affecting cities.