The Bible also mentions people receiving spiritual manifestations by means of physical objects such as rods, 3 a brass serpent on a pole which became a widespread symbol of the medical profession , 4 an ephod a part of the priestly clothing that included two precious stones , 5 and the Urim and Thummim. The young Joseph Smith accepted such familiar folk ways of his day, including the idea of using seer stones to view lost or hidden objects. In later years, as Joseph told his remarkable story, he emphasized his visions and other spiritual experiences.
In their proselyting efforts, Joseph and other early members chose not to focus on the influence of folk culture, as many prospective converts were experiencing a transformation in how they understood religion in the Age of Reason. In what became canonized revelations, however, Joseph continued to teach that seer stones and other seeric devices, as well as the ability to work with them, were important and sacred gifts from God. Seer stones also appear in historical accounts describing Joseph Smith and the Book of Mormon translation. Members of the Church throughout its history have sought to understand the early history of Joseph Smith and his finding and translating the golden plates.
So, " 0 prequel " sorts by 0 under the label "prequel. Series was designed to cover groups of books generally understood as such see Wikipedia: Book series. Like many concepts in the book world, "series" is a somewhat fluid and contested notion. A good rule of thumb is that series have a conventional name and are intentional creations , on the part of the author or publisher. For now, avoid forcing the issue with mere "lists" of works possessing an arbitrary shared characteristic, such as relating to a particular place.
Avoid series that cross authors, unless the authors were or became aware of the series identification eg. Also avoid publisher series, unless the publisher has a true monopoly over the "works" in question. So, the Dummies guides are a series of works. The extinction of both the mammoth and the mastodon predates the arrival of the Jaredites by thousands of years. FAIR's reply: Both mammoths and gomphotheres are elephant-like creatures that are plausible candidates which may have lived up until Jaredite times.
In fact, nowhere else on FAIR is their mention of gomphotheres except that one sentence. Critic's Reply: Google 'gomphotheres' and you'll see that the scientific community believes they went extinct long before the BOM mentions elephants:. The Gomphotheriidae were a diverse taxonomic family of extinct elephant-like animals proboscideans — referred to as gomphotheres.
They were widespread in North America during the Miocene and Pliocene epochs, Beginning about 5 million years ago, they were gradually replaced by modern elephants, but the last two South American species, in the genus Cuvieronius , did not finally become extinct until possibly as recently as 9, BP,and Stegomastodon remains have been dated as recently as 6, BP in the Valle del Magdalena, Colombia. Editor Comment: Scientists have not been able to find any bone or fossilized evidence of elephant-like animals in the Americas for purported BOM times.
However, we are intrigued by this drawing that some LDS defenders on LDS message boards promote as literary evidence of elephants in America:.
This could be an elephant. Certainly that interpretation can easily be made. To us it looks like an elephant.
It's not complete and detailed enough for a positive identification. One problem is that the scientific community seems to ignore this depiction. We can find no archaeologist that states this is an elephant sometimes Alpheus Hyatt Verrill is cited as endorsing this but he was an author, illustrator, naturalist, explorer and science fiction writer of the 20s and 30s, not an archaeologist.
The website this originally is taken from is Link is here. The caption under the stone carving says. Some archaeologists say these are macaws. You be the judge! Many LDS faithful and some outside the church say the drawing depicts an elephant. Many critics including those outside of the LDS context say this depicts a form of parrot known as a macaw. Some of us at MormonThink initially agreed that this drawing looks a lot more like an elephant than it does a parrot.
As there is no other evidence to support the existence of elephants in the Americas during BOM times, such as tusks or very clear, complete carvings, we decided to investigate it further:. Critics maintain the drawing looks like an elephant because it is an extrapolation from a damaged original.
The original stone carving had corner pieces broken off of it which made the parrot unrecognizable and what is left somewhat resembles an elephant head. It looks to me like the person who made the sketch decided the macaw tails looked like elephant's trunks, and his imagination filled in the parts that are missing. Look at the photo of the parrot. The pattern of skin around the eye was depicted as dots or beads by the ancient Maya, which you can see in the clearer examples I've attached.
Unfortunately, in the poorly done drawing in the original post, the artist did not complete the beading, but instead made it kind of look like a pile of grapes on top of and below a weird little ear. A macaw's top beak is lined with black on the bottom, and the shading gives the allusion of a little hook towards the top of the beak on the inside see the photo. The drawing in the original post represents the shading by the crosshatched ovals towards the bottom of the supposed elephant trunk. Cross-hatching was the Maya way of showing that something was black. The little hook or protrusion on the inside toward the top is because of the black shading; the artist basically drew the little hook correctly.
The Maya almost always indicated a Macaw by a little curl coming up from the neck, which you can also see in all of the examples I've provided as well as the drawing in the original post. Although the elephant image is not so apparent in the glyphs, you still can see the trunk and many similarities to the sculpture which resemble the elephant. None of those sculptures or drawings look anywhere close to the ones that others think are elephants.
Most people will think that the Stela 5 figures are elephants, especially if they do not know where they are to be found, than macaws. Here is a link to some other macaw sculptures.
Some email discussion threads where this topic is discussed by both critics and LDS faithful:. The following stone carving is where the picture comes from. You can see that the top corner pieces are broken off - that is why what remains appears to be an elephant. Scholars now are able to decipher the hieroglyphs contained on the stone monument and they confirm that it was a macaw on the stone and not an elephant reference: Dr.
Coe, mormonstories podcast Editor Summary Comment on Elephants: If the first elephant image at the beginning of this section is truly a depiction of a real, living elephant that the Mayans saw, and if it was really made before Columbus arrived, then we have to ask why there isn't any drawings or carvings of complete elephants, elephant figures, ivory carvings, etc. The Mayans made thousands of detailed carvings of other animals they had contact with such as jaguars and monkeys so why can't we find any concrete evidence of elephants other than this obscure depiction?
The LDS apologists likely know that the macaw explanation is accepted by serious archaeologists such as Michael Coe. They may also suspect it is not credible like the numerous ancient American horse hoaxes that have been circulated and Daniel Peterson of FARMS use to endorse. Luckily, most apologists no longer cite this drawing or other "evidences" Pictures Worth a Thousand Words uses as proof of the BOM since some of the "evidences" are known hoaxes such as the Los Lunas Inscription 10 commandments hoax archived copy. The following is a neutral summary of cattle and cows from Wikipedia as of May 20, :.
There are six references to cattle made in the Book of Mormon, including verbiage suggesting they were domesticated.
Apologists argue that the term "cattle" may be more generic that suggesting members of the genus Bos, and may have referred to bison, mountain goats, llamas, or other American species. Without these the Nephites could not have kept the Law of Moses, as directed. LDS Apologists note that the word "cattle" may refer to the ancestor of the American bison, Bison antiquus of the sub family Bovinae. Bison antiquus, sometimes called the ancient bison, was the most common large herbivore of the North American continent for over ten thousand years, and is a direct ancestor of the living American bison.
However, no species of bison is known to have been domesticated as the "cattle" in the Book of Mormon are suggested to have been. Apologists counter that the wording in the Book of Mormon does not require the "cattle" to have been domesticated in the strictest sense. For example, Enos in the Book of Mormon tells that the Nephites raised "flocks of all manner of cattle of every kind…" - Enos , see also 2 Nephi Diamond , pp.
The following is a neutral summary of goats from Wikipedia as of June 1, :. Goats are mentioned three times in the Book of Mormon placing them among the Nephites and the Jaredites. In two of the verses, "goats" are distinguished from "wild goats" indicating that there were at least two varieties, one of them possibly domesticated, or tamed.
Domesticated goats are not native to the Americas, having been domesticated in pre-historic times on the Eurasian continent.
Click Videos in the left navigation and you'll find several categories with hundreds of videos that you can watch online or download for later use at home or in the classroom. Return to Book Page. Use our free online Bible to better know the Word of God. Kelley pp SB. Nothing less than a complete apostasy from the Christian religion would warrant the establishment of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Want to Read saving….
Domestic goats were introduced on the American continent upon the arrival of the Europeans in the 15th century, years after the conclusion of the Book of Mormon, and nearly years after they are last mentioned in the Book of Mormon. The mountain goat is indigenous to North America, but it has never been domesticated, and is known for being very aggressive.
He noted that when early Spanish explorers visited the southeastern United States they found native Americans herding tame deer. Quoting an early historian of Spain, Peter Martyr d'Anghiera, recorded:. These deer bring forth and nourish their young in the houses of the natives. During the daytime they wander freely through the woods in search of their food, and in the evening they come back to their little ones, who have been cared for, allowing themselves to be shut up in the courtyards and even to be milked, when they have suckled their fawns.
The only milk the natives know is that of the does, from which they make cheese. Mr Roper also noted early Spanish colonists called native Mesoamerican brocket deer goats. Herbert G. May and Bruce M. The following is a neutral summary of swine from Wikipedia as of August 5, :. Swine are referred to twice in the Book of Mormon, and the narrative of the Book of Mormon suggests that the swine were domesticated.
Doctrinal Commentary on the Book of Mormon, V3: Alma through Helaman [ Joseph Fielding McConkie and Robert L. Millet] on hosseliga.tk *FREE* shipping. Editorial Reviews. About the Author. Joseph Fielding McConkie was born and reared in Salt Doctrinal Commentary on the Book of Mormon, vol. 3 - Kindle.