Determining semantic textual similarity using natural deduction proofs. Association for Computational Linguistics. End-to-end differentiable proving. Given a goal or query , SLD derivation subsequently attempts to prove the goal or subgoal by unifying it with the head of a rule in the knowledge base. However, as mentioned previously, the unification of a goal grandfatherOf John, Bob and head grandpaOf John, Bob fails even when these are semantically similar.
The proposed theorem prover returns a score representing how successful the proof is, instead of whether the proof is successful or not. Specifically, predicates and constants occurring in a knowledge base are embedded into a continuous space by assigning a low-dimensional dense vector to them.
When proving a goal, the similarity between a goal and a rule head in the knowledge base is calculated. Because unification is always successful, the proof process is performed up to depth d. The vectors representing predicates and constants are tuned such that a query that can be proven by the knowledge base receives a higher score.
Event embeddings for semantic script modeling.
A comprehensive survey of graph embedding: Problems, techniques, and applications. Knowledge graph embedding: a survey of approaches and applications. Event representations with tensor-based compositions. Translating embeddings for modeling multi-relational data. We assume that a knowledge base contains a set of triplets h , r , t , where h , t represent an entity and r represents a relation between the entities e.
TransE represents each entity and relation as a point in a n -dimensional continuous space.
These learned distributed representations can be used for automated question answering, for instance. Let the distributed representation of an arbitrary entity t be t. Despite recent advances in the community, many obstacles remain to integrate logical inference within robots in the real world. First, in the work we have seen so far, the model of the world is not grounded in the real world. Second, the vocabulary set, i.
Third, the knowledge acquisition bottleneck is still present. The use of distributed representations partially solves this issue, i. Therefore, the following challenges remain as open questions: Developing a method for logical inference where the model of the world is grounded on continuous and constantly changing real-world sensory inputs.
Developing a mechanism to associate new concepts emerging from inputs with existing predicates, i.
Enhancing purely symbolic logical inference with causal inference in the physical world, e. To conduct the logical inferences described earlier, syntactic parsing should be perfected in advance to be suitable for real-world communication. Syntactic parsing is indispensable for semantic parsing, semantic role identification, and other semantics-driven tasks in NLP. Speech and language processing.
Prentice hall series in artificial intelligence. Dependency parsing has become widespread by virtue of its simplicity and universality, and downstream tasks are often designed assuming dependencies. Transforming dependencies into phrase structures. The syntactic process.
Computational Linguistics and Talking Robots. Processing Content in Database Semantics. Authors: Hausser, Roland. Free Preview. The author presents a. PDF | On Jan 1, , Roland Hausser and others published Computational Linguistics and Talking Robots - Processing Content in Database Semantics.
Learning a grammar is straightforward if equipped with a corpus of annotated ground truth trees, i. However, in the realm of robotics, we need the unsupervised learning of grammars to be flexible and to fit the utterances of users. Indeed, aside from developmental considerations, users often speak in a way that cannot be handled by a predefined grammar, which is usually based on written text prepared in a different environment.
Cooperative and Competitive Machine Learning through Question Answering My research goal is to create machine learning algorithms that are interpretable to humans, that can understand human strengths and weaknesses, and can help humans improve themselves. Your recently viewed items and featured recommendations. Reference by pointing indexical The second reference mechanism of cognition is based on pointing. The mechanism of appraisal, ii , for the purpose of maintaining balance has been focused on in Chap. Annu Rev Psychol —
Such colloquial expressions are especially characteristic of robotics. Bayesian symbol-refined tree substitution grammars for syntactic parsing. Probabilistic CFG with latent annotations. Below, we describe the current status of the aforementioned three approaches to parsing. Corpus-based induction of syntactic structure: Models of dependency and constituency. Valence in linguistics means the number of arguments controlled by a verbal predicate.
View all notes DMV. DMV is a statistical generative model that yields a sentence by iteratively generating a dependent word in a random direction from the source word in a probabilistic fashion. Improving unsupervised dependency parsing with richer contexts and smoothing. Unsupervised neural dependency parsing. However, dependency parsing has limitations: the most prominent issue is that large syntactic structures such as relative clauses or compositional sentences cannot be recognized.
For this purpose, constituent parsing is a better alternative, as described below. Constituent parsing is a general term referring to a model that assigns hierarchical phrase structures to a sentence. Foundations of statistical natural language processing.
However, unsupervised learning of PCFG is a notoriously difficult problem, because we usually only need to find few valid parses of a sentence within O N 3 K 3 possibilities, where N is the length of the sentence and K is the number of nonterminal symbols, i. Therefore, inference in unsupervised PCFG induction is quite prone to being trapped by local maxima, and thus has been avoided for a long time. Grammar induction from lots of words alone. Modeling the effects of memory on human online sentence processing with particle filters. Although CFG recognizes phrase structures, it is still limited, because these structures only have a symbolic meaning.
CCG [ 60 Steedman M. View all notes instead of a distinct, and meaningless, symbol VP. Generative models for statistical parsing with combinatory categorial grammar. An HDP model for inducing combinatory categorial grammars. Trans Assoc Comput Linguist.
Hierarchical Dirichlet processes. J Amer Statist Assoc. ACL System Demonstrations; It also has the advantage of handling ambiguities by virtue of a statistical formulation using logistic regression.
Once these syntactic analyses of the sentence are available, we can associate them with external information. Proceedings of the first workshop on language grounding for robotics; However, the symbol grounding problem does not concern the interpretation of symbols, i. In a discrete case, Poon [ 77 Poon H. Grounded unsupervised semantic parsing. ACL ; Unsupervised semantic parsing. It has the clear advantage of abstracting away various possible linguistic expressions with respect to the database; however, the database must be given in advance and usually has a narrow scope.
Because of its discrete nature, this approach cannot discern subtle differences in linguistic expression and adjust the actual behavior of the robots accordingly. Grounded compositional semantics for finding and describing images with sentences.